Author Archives: IT Computer Classes

IT6105 – BIT UCSC FINAL YEAR PROJECT 2016 Guidance Help Supervisor/Advisor In Sinhala English Tamil

Source: IT6105 – BIT UCSC FINAL YEAR PROJECT 2016 Guidance Help Supervisor/Advisor In Sinhala English Tamil

 

Project BIT UCSC Guidelines Download here ..

 

IT6105 – FINAL YEAR PROJECT 2016

Thu, 01/28/2016 – 11:45
 Please use the following documents for the Final Year Project  (IT6105)
********************************************************************************

IT6105 – FINAL YEAR PROJECT SCHEDULE FOR 2016

 Mon, 01/04/2016 – 07:40
Deadline (on or before)
Description
01st January, 2016
Beginning of the academic year
14th January, 2016
Registration for project & project evaluation  (Pay Rs.6,000 at the EDC on or before 14th of January, 2016)
15th February, 2016
Submission of the signed Supervisor Agreement Formand Client Agreement Form to the EDC or VLE
15th March 2016
Submission of the Project Proposal through the VLE (Submission will only be allowed if the payment is made before 14th of January, 2016)
29th March 2016
12th April 2016
26th April 2016
03rd May 2016
18th May 2016
28th June2016
12th July 2016
26th July 2016
09th August 2016
23rd August 2016
Submission of 10 Progress Reports through the VLE
14h June 2016
Interim Report submission through the VLE
30th September 2016
Submission of the project dissertation (PDF) through the VLE
October
Publication of project evaluation schedule on the BIT web site
October /November
Project evaluation at the UCSC (Each candidate should bring one spiral bound copy of the project dissertation, CD with a copy of project software and a computer with all software installed and data entered.)
November/ December
Feedback for dissertation corrections (through the BIT web site)
December
Approval for dissertation corrections (payment of Rs. 1000 for resubmission, if applicable)
January
Submission of Final Dissertation (One hard bound copy of the dissertation prepared according to guidelines described under Section 3.5) and one CD with a printout of its directory contents to the UCSC (see section 3.6)
This project schedule is given in Table 4.1 of the Project Guidelines.  Refer the VLE for details and forms. All submissions have to either reach the EDC (agreement forms only) or uploaded to VLE on or before the specified deadlines.No postal or e-mail submissions will be entertained. Late submissions will not be accepted.
IT6104 – INDIVIDUAL PROJECT
GUIDELINES
PROJECT EXAMINATION BOARD (PEB)
2014/ 2015
Degree of Bachelor of Information Technology of the
University of Colombo School of Computing
BIT
ii
These guidelines were prepared over a period of time and the following (members of the
PEB) continued in preparing this documentation using three previous versions (IT6102
[1], IT6103 [2] and IT6104 [3])
Authors: Amitha Caldera, Aysha Munawwara, Gihan Seneviratne, Malik Silva, Patrick
Jayasinghe and Gihan Wikramanayake
Note that these guidelines could be improved during the academic year and hence the
candidates are strongly advised to monitor the web sites for any updates of this document
and use the latest version available under “Information” on the BIT web site
(http://www.bit.lk/) or the virtual learning environment (http://vle.bit.lk).
iii
Abstract
This is a document that provides guidelines for you in order to successfully finish your
BIT individual project. Thus it provides information on project selection, supervisor
selection, project registration, project schedule, the details of the submissions that you
have to make, and also the method that will be used to assess your project. It also provides
information on the structure of your dissertation as well as some hints on good report
writing and good project management. If you carefully follow the instructions in this
document, you will be on a path leading to successful project grade.
iv
Acknowledgements
There are many people who have helped us in preparing this document. They include
those identified on page (ii), those who have contributed for the previous version and
others who have given feedback. We remember with gratitude the vision, the initiative and
the advice of the founder Director of UCSC late Prof. V.K. Samaranayake. In addition to
his innumerable contributions for computing in Sri Lanka, he also initiated the BIT degree
program and was closely involved in formulating the project course for this degree
program. We also thank the former Director of the UCSC, Dr. Ruvan Weerasinghe for his
initiatives and advices. We also thank Prof. Athula Ginige for his advice. Last but not
least, we would like to thank all the past students of the BIT programme who took this
course and helped us fine tune this document based on our experience with evaluating
their work.
v
Contents
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………………….iv
Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………..v
List of Figures …………………………………………………………………………………..vii
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………….. viii
List of Acronyms………………………………………………………………………………..ix
Chapter 1 – Introduction……………………………………………………………………..1
Chapter 2 -Project Overview……………………………………………………………….2
2.1 Registration …………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
2.2 Duration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….2
2.3 Project Selection ……………………………………………………………………………………………3
2.4 Scope……………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
2.5 Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
2.6 Supervisor/Advisor ………………………………………………………………………………………..5
Chapter 3 – Submissions ……………………………………………………………………..7
3.1 Project Proposal …………………………………………………………………………………………….7
3.2 Progress Reports ……………………………………………………………………………………………7
3.3 Interim Report……………………………………………………………………………………………….7
3.4 Dissertation …………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
3.5 Final Dissertation …………………………………………………………………………………………..8
3.6 Read-only CD ……………………………………………………………………………………………….9
Chapter 4 – Schedule…………………………………………………………………………10
Chapter 5 -Dissertation……………………………………………………………………..12
5.1 General……………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
5.2 Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..17
5.2.1 Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………..17
5.2.2 Main chapters……………………………………………………………………………………………19
5.2.3 Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………….23
5.3 Glossary and Index ………………………………………………………………………………………25
Chapter 6 – Assessment……………………………………………………………………..26
6.1 Evaluation …………………………………………………………………………………………………..26
6.1.1 Presentation………………………………………………………………………………………………26
6.1.2 Demonstration…………………………………………………………………………………………..27
6.1.3 Viva…………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
vi
6.1.4 Code modification……………………………………………………………………………………..27
6.1.5 Dissertation feedback…………………………………………………………………………………28
6.2 Marking Scheme ………………………………………………………………………………………….29
6.2.1 Evaluation ………………………………………………………………………………………………..29
6.2.2 Progress reports…………………………………………………………………………………………30
6.3 Grade………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30
Chapter 7 – Pitfalls…………………………………………………………………………….31
References…………………………………………………………………………………………32
Appendix A – Examples of Project Topics ………………………………………….33
Appendix B – Project Proposal…………………………………………………………..34
Appendix C- Supervisor/Advisor Agreement Form ……………………………35
Appendix D- Template for the cover page ………………………………………….36
vii
List of Figures
Figure 3.1: Spine of the dissertation ………………………………………………………………………….8
viii
List of Tables
Table 2.1: Project fee ………………………………………………………………………………………………2
Table 3.1: Contents in the CD-ROM …………………………………………………………………………9
Table 4.1: Project schedule …………………………………………………………………………………….11
Table 5.1: Typesetting recommendations…………………………………………………………………13
Table 5.2: Recommended work shedule …………………………………………………………………..16
Table 6.1: Dissertation check list…………………………………………………………………………….29
Table 6.2: Marking scheme for project…………………………………………………………………….29
Table 6.3: Project evaluation check list ……………………………………………………………………29
ix
List of Acronyms
BIT – Bachelor of Information Technology
CD – Compact Disk
EDC – External Degrees Centre
PEB – Project Examination Board
UCSC – University of Colombo School of Computing
VLE – Virtual Learning Environment (www.bit.lk)
1
Chapter 1 – Introduction
The individual project is by far the most important single piece of work in the BIT degree
programme. It provides the opportunity for a candidate to demonstrate independence and
originality, to plan and organize a large project over a long period, and to put into practice
some of the techniques that have been taught throughout the course. Individual Project
also aims to assess a candidate’s ability to communicate his ideas and work. Whatever
your level of academic achievement is so far, you can show your individuality and
inspiration in this project. It should be the most satisfying piece of work in your degree. It
is equivalent to three courses in the BIT degree programme and is an extended piece of
individual work, occupying a candidate’s time from the end of the second year through to
the end of the third year covering over 300 hours of work.
A candidate will select a supervisor and a project. A project is selected from a workplace
or an organization. Candidate may also select a topic on his own to address an existing
problem. Candidate will have to develop a prototype and demonstrate that the
requirements are met through the system. Candidate will have regular meetings with the
supervisor to discuss project work and produce a formal dissertation (report) in a
structured way along the suggested guidelines. It should demonstrate that the relevant
work has been carried out under proper supervision.
The rest of this document is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 we give an overview of the
project. In Chapter 3 we describe the various submissions you have to make to fulfil the
partial requirements of the project. In Chapter 4 we give the schedule for the project.
Chapter 5 gives guidelines on writing your dissertation. Chapter 6 describes how the
Project Examination Board (PEB) assesses your project. Finally, in Chapter 7 we describe
the pitfalls you should be aware of to ensure the success of your project.
2
Chapter 2 -Project Overview
2.1 Registration
Project can be done only by students registered for the third year of the BIT degree
programme. Project fee is Rs. 5000 and it is paid in two stages as indicated in Table 2.1.
The payment vouchers can be downloaded from the BIT website [5]. All payments can be
made at any branch of the People’s Bank. In addition, payments also can be done using a
Credit Card through the BIT website. The payment receipts (EDC copy-1) should reach
the External Degrees Centre (EDC) at 221/2A, Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 7, before
the respective deadlines given in Chapter 4.
Description Fee
Project Registration – to be paid at the time of submitting the project proposal Rs. 1500
Project Evaluation – to be paid at the time of submitting the draft dissertation RS. 3500
TOTAL Rs. 5000
Table 2.1: Project fee
2.2 Duration
The candidate is expected to spend, on an average, at least 12 hours per week amounting
to a minimum total of 300 hours, excluding the time taken for report writing and
preparation of presentation material. Effective time management is the candidate’s
responsibility. Devoting a regular time slot for the project work consistently throughout
the year will help. Always keep track on the project submission deadlines and plan on
what has to be done to meet them.
3
2.3 Project Selection
It is the responsibility of the candidate to identify a suitable project. The project should
comprise a substantial amount of individual work to satisfy the PEB that the project
objectives have been met as well as the time spent on the project is justified.
The candidate will work on a topic of interest which may have originated from his work
place or may be based on an organization’s requirement or may be based on a candidate’s
idea that an organization would like to try out. The candidate should verify from the client
whether they had previously given such a project to any other students, as implementing a
similar project for the same client is not allowed. Candidate should note that the project
would be evaluated based what would be demonstrated at the UCSC and not by the
features that is supposed to be there but cannot be demonstrated at the UCSC for some
reason.
A good project involves a combination of sound background research, a solid
implementation with substantial system functionality and a thorough evaluation of the
project’s output in both absolute and relative terms. Good projects invariably cover some
new ground. For example, the project may involve developing a complex application
which does not already exist, or it may involve enhancing some existing application or
method to improve its functionality, performance, etc. A good criterion to select a project
is its usefulness to mankind: a system developed by your project should improve the work
of the people even in a small way. It should never be a system that only uses computers
with no real gain for its users.
We hope that you would be able to find a good project topic. The candidate is expected to
look at some of the project reports kept for reference at the EDC and get an idea of the
type of work that has to be done. A list of example project topics to help you make your
decision is provided in Appendix A.
The project should involve the main activities associated with the design and
implementation of a software engineering system: requirement analysis, specification,
4
design, implementation, testing, evaluation, documentation and maintenance. At the end
of the project the candidate must be able to certify that all the requirements of the project
were met. For this, a letter from the client indicating the satisfactory completion of your
system (Client Certification) should be attached to the appendix of the dissertation.
2.4 Scope
Although the project is done for a client, a candidate should remember that the purpose of
the project is to fulfil an examination requirement of the BIT degree programme. Hence
satisfying a client does not guarantee that the project is successful as the client’s
expectation could be well below the expectation of the PEB. Also some clients may
expect more than what is expected by the PEB and hence the candidate may fail to fulfil
all the requirements of the PEB within the allocated time. Thus the candidate should
consult his supervisor and agree on a suitable scope for the project that will satisfy the
requirements of the PEB. You will find several examples of projects and their scopes in
the VLE.
2.5 Objectives
The project encourages and rewards individual inventiveness and application of effort.
The project will develop a candidate’s ability to:
• construct a project from initial ideas, via a thorough analysis of the problem;
• plan, schedule, monitor, and control own work;
• work independently;
• defend ideas in discussions and presentations;
• use references, libraries and other information sources;
• apply theories, tools and techniques from taught courses;
• demonstrate the solution to the problem through developed software;
• write formal reports.
5
2.6 Supervisor/Advisor
A candidate should have a project supervisor/advisor. He should be able to guide the
candidate throughout the project. He should have appropriate knowledge in the application
area and be an information technology (IT) graduate, a professionally qualified person in
IT or a senior user of IT. A person who has successfully done / supervised / advised an IT
project at a similar level will be usually familiar with all stages of a project and hence be
suitable to supervise/advise you and the PEB strongly recommends such a person as your
supervisor/advisor. The candidate should ensure that the supervisor/advisor will not be
away for very long periods and he is willing to spend the expected time with you. The
supervisor/advisor should also be able to go through your project proposal and dissertation
and provide feedback. The chosen supervisor/advisor sometimes may not be familiar with
the client’s domain and may not be able to guide you in that aspect. In such cases you are
advised to have a second supervisor/advisor. This person need not be familiar with IT and
preferably should be from the client domain. Note that members of the PEB are prohibited
from being project supervisor/advisor. Also, you should not select project supervisors or
clients from your close relatives or family members.
The candidate should obtain the consent of the supervisor(s)/advisor(s) to supervise/advise
the project and his consent should be indicated in the Supervisor/Advisor Agreement
Form available in the VLE and that form should be submitted to the EDC. Any change of
project supervisor/advisor should be notified to the EDC in writing with reasons given.
Also, a fresh Supervisor/Advisor Agreement Form should be submitted to the EDC.
It is a formal requirement that the candidate regularly meets the project supervisor/advisor
during the project period. The candidate should work independently but report the
progress and seek guidance from the supervisor/advisor to ensure the correctness of the
work. The candidate should agree on a timetable with information about methods of
contact with the supervisor/advisor at the start of the project. Typically, a candidate should
meet the supervisor/advisor at least once in every two weeks. You may meet the second
supervisor/advisor on a monthly basis or as and when required. During the entire project a
supervisor/advisor should have typically spent around 10 hours with the candidate for
6
discussions in addition to the time spent to read and correct the proposal and dissertation
to be submitted to the EDC. Some supervisors/advisors would want to meet the candidate
more often than this. A record of the meetings with the supervisor/advisor should be
formally recorded through the VLE Progress Report. When you go to see your
supervisor/advisor you should have prepared a written list of points you wish to discuss.
Take notes during the meeting so that you do not forget the advice you were given or the
conclusions that were reached. Candidate should obtain the supervisor’s/advisor’s
approval before the project proposal, and the dissertation submissions to ensure that the
documentation meet the PEB requirements.
7
Chapter 3 – Submissions
3.1 Project Proposal
Prior to commencing the project work, the candidate should register for the project and
submit through VLE a project proposal that summarizes the intended work. The candidate
should discuss the proposed project with the chosen project supervisor, prior to
submission of this proposal. The candidate should keep a copy of the project proposal for
later reference. The project proposal should be uploaded to the VLE by mid January
(Exact date is available in the Table 4.1). The project work starts from the time you
commence to prepare the project proposal. Note that the PEB is not in a position to give
any feedback for the proposed project. The candidate should also ask his supervisor(s) to
sign the Supervisor Agreement Form (which is available in the VLE) and to post/submit
same to reach the EDC not later than the end January (Exact date is available in the Table
4.1).
3.2 Progress Reports
The candidate should submit a progress report every fortnight through the VLE. These
reports should indicate the progress the candidate is making with his project, details of
meetings with supervisor(s), decisions taken, problems encountered etc. The schedule for
progress report submissions are given in the Table 4.1.
3.3 Interim Report
The candidate should also submit an interim report to the VLE by mid April of the
relevant academic year. This report should include the Introduction, Analysis and Design
chapters of the dissertation along with relevant references and design diagrams. Those
who failed to make the proper submission will not be called for the evaluation. (Exact date
for submission is given in the Table 4.1).
8
3.4 Dissertation
A project dissertation describing your project is a major submission. The candidate should
plan properly so that he can finish the dissertation writing by its deadline. Details on
writing the dissertation are provided in Chapter 5.
Candidate has to register for the project evaluation before submitting the dissertation. It is
initially uploaded to the VLE as a softcopy (refer Table 4.1 for the submission date).
3.5 Final Dissertation
Based on the outcome of the project evaluation some candidate will be asked to complete
the project. These candidates should do any improvements to the submitted draft
dissertation as suggested by the PEB and submit the final dissertation (hard bound) by the
specified deadline to the Project Coordinator at UCSC. Softcopy of the final dissertation
should also be submitted via the VLE. It is a single file in pdf format containing from
cover page to appendices. Candidate need to submit only one copy to the UCSC. However
they prepare extra copies for personal use.
The final dissertation should be sewn, trimmed and bound and covered with dark cloth,
leather or rexine, in navy blue. On the spine of the dissertation, the initials and surname of
the candidate (at top of the spine), the title of the project (abbreviated if necessary at the
centre of the spine including dropping the client information) and year (at the bottom of
the spine) shall be given in gold lettering of suitable size. Figure 3.1 gives an example of a
spine of the dissertation.
Figure 3.1: Spine of the dissertation

9
3.6 Read-only CD
ISO 9660 Read Only CD (most common file format for CD-ROM) consisting the system
should be prepared to fulfil the information in Table 3.1. Candidate need not include the
software packages used such as the database management system. Two versions of the CD
should be submitted by the specified date. The first version should be submitted on the
date of the project evaluation. The second version should be submitted once your final
dissertation is approved for hard bound by the PEB. The CD should be labelled indicating
the candidate’s index number, name and year. A printout of the directory contents
showing the file names should be attached with appropriate comments to the cover of the
CD so that the PEB can identify the contents of the CD.
Description
Developed software
Source code files
Databases (if applicable)
Test Results
Manuals
README file (describe how to install the software)
Dissertation (PDF document)
Manuals
Other reports
Table 3.1: Contents in the CD-ROM
10
Chapter 4 – Schedule
The project schedule is given in Table 4.1. Refer to the VLE for details and forms. All
submissions should be either reached the EDC or uploaded to the VLE on or before the
specified deadlines. If the deadline falls on a holiday, then its immediate previous working
day should be considered as the deadline. No postal submissions will be entertained. Late
submissions will not be accepted.
Date/Month (on or
before) Description
01st October, 2014 Beginning of the academic year
18th December, 2014 Registration for project & project evaluation (Pay Rs.5,000 at
the EDC on or before 18th of December 2014)
18th December, 2014 Submission of the signed Supervisor Agreement Form at the
EDC
07th January 2015 Submission of the Project Proposal through the VLE (Submission
will only be allowed if the payment is made before 18th December,
2014)
14th January 2015
01st February 2015
16th February 2015
02nd March 2015
17th March 2015
29th April 2015
20th May 2015
04th June 2015
18th June 2015
06th July 2015
Submission of 10 Progress Reports through the VLE
09th April 2015 Interim Report submission through the VLE
04th August 2015 Submission of the project dissertation (PDF) through the VLE
11
August Publication of project evaluation schedule on the BIT web site
August /September
Project evaluation at the UCSC (Each candidate should bring one
spiral bound copy of the project dissertation and a computer with
all software installed and data entered.)
September/October Feedback for dissertation corrections (through the BIT web site)
November/December Approval for dissertation corrections (payment of Rs. 1000 for
resubmission, if applicable)
November/December
Submission of Final Dissertation (One hard bound copy of the
dissertation prepared according to guidelines described under
Section 3.5) and one CD with a printout of its directory contents to
the UCSC (see section 3.6)
Table 4.1: Project schedule
12
Chapter 5 -Dissertation
5.1 General
(1) The project dissertation is a formal document and the structure and the general
content requirements are described in Section 5.2. This includes advice on how to
organize the work into chapters, what should be covered in the main body of the
work and what should go in the appendices.
(2) Candidates are strongly advised, while writing is in progress, to show each chapter
to their supervisors for necessary feedback especially on technical content. Please
follow the instructions given in this chapter to minimize correction time.
(3) The format requirements are not overly restrictive (e.g., there is no requirement to
use a particular font style for some parts of the dissertation). However, do not use
too many different typefaces in the dissertation, or in general, too much time
developing an elaborate visual presentation. It is better to keep the look of the
dissertation simple and straightforward. (Note that an elaborate presentation can in
fact create a negative impression.)
(4) The candidate is recommended to use table and figures, if they aid in the
explanation of information in the text. Use of plotting/drawing packages to create
figures is recommended as hand-drawn figures will not be accepted. Please note that
all tables and figures should be numbered and suitable captions given to them. The
table/figure number and the caption should be placed immediately below the
table/figure. Note also that all of the tables and figures must be referenced in the text
of the dissertation-e.g. the data flow diagram of the system is given in Figure1.1.
(5) With regard to the number of pages, the opinion of the PEB is that the quality of
the dissertation is very much more important than its number of pages. Keeping text
simple and concise is a good strategy to follow for any form of writing. Thus, the
candidate must carefully read through his written dissertation and refine it by
13
removing all repeating and unnecessary text. The PEB notes with regret that some
candidates tend to inflate their dissertations by repeating the same text at separate
places in the dissertation. This has to be avoided. Remember: keep it simple.
(6) The dissertation text (defined as everything except title page, table of contents,
references and appendices) should be around 50 A4 pages. The length (dissertation
text together with appendices) of the dissertation should be less than 110 pages.
(7) The candidates are advised to follow the typing recommendations given in Table
5.1 to typeset their dissertations. Note that in order to save paper, we recommend
single spaced text with double-sided printing. A typeface less than 10 points should
not be used under any circumstance.
Table 5.1: Typesetting recommendations

(8) All pages should be numbered including Chapter 1 beginning from page 1. Use
roman numerals for pages before that as used in this guidelines document.
(9) Any piece of writing should be directed to a specific reader. The readers of your
dissertation will be the members of the PEB and any interested future
users/modifiers of your system. Thus you are advised to tailor your writing with
them in mind.
Description Draft Report Hard Bound
dissertation text Times New Roman
text in tables and code listing
line spacing (preface and main text)
line spacing appendices
left margin
top/bottom/right margins
chapter heading
section headings
subsection headings
other headings
tables headings font
printing
12pt
11pt
1.5
1.0
37mm
25mm
24pt bold
16pt
14pt
12pt bold
11pt bold
on both sides of paper use
mirror image option
12pt
11pt
1.5
1.0
37mm
25mm
24pt bold
16pt
14pt
12pt bold
11pt bold
Single sides of
paper
14
(10) Report writing style should be of the passive form. It is considered very bad style
in a formal report to make explicit references to what the candidate himself did as in
for example “I decided…”. Scientific papers never use the first person in this way.
The passive form as in “it was decided…” is strongly preferred. In the dissertation,
the first person could be used judiciously in the introduction and conclusions, but
the use of “we” is recommended over “I”. The use of first person writing should be
avoided everywhere else in the dissertation.
(11) The suggested chapter structure for the dissertation is given in section 5.2.2. If
needed, the candidate should carefully decide on suitable sections and sub-sections
for each chapter. Section and sub-section headings should be short, meaningful, and
similar in tone. It is not recommended to divide the sub-sections further, unless it is
absolutely necessary. Note that when a section of text is sub-divided, there should
ordinarily be at least two sub-sections (e.g., If there is no Section 1.2, you should
never number a section as Section 1.1 as then a reader would look for a non-existent
Section 1.2)
(12) The candidate should carefully decide on the paragraphs to include for each
section/subsection. Each paragraph should consist of the development of a single
idea through a collection of sentences. It is suggested in writing literature to
compare a good paragraph to a train. The engine gives the direction to a train and
the cars follow it. The topic sentence of a paragraph can be considered the engine
and the other sentences of the paragraph, the cars of the train. The topic sentence
should give the “direction” to where the paragraph is going. In other words, it
should give the gist of the paragraph and set its tone. As such, it usually occurs at
the beginning of the paragraph although it could come in at the middle or at the end.
Each sentence in the paragraph should be relevant to the topic sentence. Following
is an example [4] of a good paragraph with topic sentence in bold for illustration:
Researchers have also compared decision tables to decision trees. The pioneers of
structured analysis and design thought decision tables were best for portraying
complex logic while decision trees were better for simpler problems. Others have
15
found decision trees to be better for guiding decision making in practice, but
decision tables have the advantage of being more compact than decision trees and
easier to manipulate. If more conditions are added to a situation, a decision table
can easily accommodate more conditions, actions, and rules. If the table becomes
too large, it can easily be divided into sub-tables, without the inconvenience of using
flowchart-like tree connections used with decision trees. Creating and maintaining
complex decision tables can be made easier with computer support.
(13) Please note that in writing, only the first letter of a proper noun should be
capitalized at the middle of a sentence. All the others should be written in lowercase.
If you are not sure whether to capitalize or not, use lower-case.
(14) Note also that you should not use shortened word forms in writing. Thus for
example, have not should be used instead of haven’t, is not instead of isn’t, do not
instead of don’t and so on.
(15) If you have to write numbers below ten in a statement, use words instead of digits.
Two correct examples are: We performed seven tests with our new system and there
were 20 cases of error.
(16) Plagiarism is the presentation of another person’s thoughts or words as though they
were candidate’s own. The candidate should avoid this when writing his
dissertation. All sentences or passages quoted in his report from other people’s work
have to be specially acknowledged by clear cross-referencing to author, work and
page(s). Direct quotations from published or unpublished work of others should
always be clearly identified as such by being placed inside quotation marks, and full
reference to their source should be provided in the proper form. Equally, if another
person’s ideas or judgements are summarized, the candidate should refer to that
person in the main text of the dissertation, and include the work referred to in the
references section of the dissertation. Failure to observe these rules may result in an
allegation of cheating. All suspected cheating will be reported as examination
offenses. Any illustrations, which are not the work of the candidate can be used only
16
with the explicit permission of the originator and should be specially acknowledged.
The project is an important component of the degree and plagiarism in project work
is taken very seriously, and when discovered will imply severe penalties and
consequences for the culprit’s degree and possibly for his entire future career. Such
a candidate will fail the project and the degree examination as a whole when
plagiarism in project work is discovered. Candidate will not be allowed to repeat the
project and other degree components for a specified number of years. Therefore, it is
important to give credit where it is due and acknowledge all work borrowed, and
emphasize what the candidate’s distinct contribution has been in the project.
(17) You may follow the formatting used in this guidelines document as your guide to
format your own dissertation.
(18) A suggested schedule that will help you to complete dissertation writing on time is
given in Table 5.2.
Academic Year Description
By 16th
week
By 18th week
Upload project proposal
Finish writing introduction Chapter
By 23rd week Finish analysis and finish writing analysis chapter
By 28
th week Finish design and finish writing design chapter
By 35th week Finish implementation and finish writing implementation chapter
By 37th week Finish evaluation and finish writing evaluation chapter
By 38th week Finish writing conclusion chapter
By 40th week Finish writing appendices and the preface material in the dissertation and
handover your completed dissertation to your supervisor for his feedback
By 44th week Go through your completed dissertation for any errors, improve it if needed
and submit a spiral bound copy of the dissertation to the EDC.
Table 5.2: Recommended work schedule

Note: The references section in the dissertation should be updated as necessary when
writing the dissertation.
17
5.2 Contents
5.2.1 Preface
This is the material that comes before the first chapter. This consists of a title page,
declaration page, abstract, acknowledgement page, contents, list of figures, list of tables,
and list of acronyms. These pages are numbered using roman numbers.
Title Page
This comprises the title of the dissertation, candidate’s name, BIT registration number,
index number, the name(s) of the supervisor(s), the date of submission (month and year),
and the following statement “This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirement of the Degree of Bachelor of Information Technology of the University of
Colombo School of Computing”. The title of the dissertation should be clear and should
describe the main area of work and will identify the name of the client. Do not include any
abbreviations in the title. Refer the sample template for further details.
Declaration
The second page should contain the following signed declaration.
“I certify that this dissertation does not incorporate, without acknowledgement, any
material previously submitted for a degree or diploma in any university and to the best of
my knowledge and belief, it does not contain any material previously published or written
by another person or myself except where due reference is made in the text. I also hereby
give consent for my dissertation, if accepted, to be made available for photocopying and
for interlibrary loans, and for the title and abstract to be made available to outside
organizations.
Signature of Candidate: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date:../…/….
Name of Candidate: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Countersigned by:
Signature of Supervisor(s)/Advisor(s): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date:../…/….
Name(s) of Supervisor(s)/Advisor(s): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .”
18
You may submit a photocopy of this page along with the draft dissertation and use the
original for the final submission.
Abstract
The abstract should help a prospective reader decide whether to read the entire dissertation
or not. A good abstract could be written using just a few paragraphs. For example, a four
paragraph abstract could contain the following. The problem that you have solved can be
given as the first paragraph. The second paragraph can elaborate on the first paragraph for
example by giving the scope of your project and functionalities of the developed system.
The third paragraph can contain the methodologies, technologies, tools, languages and
databases that you used in the design and implementation of the solution and the last
paragraph can contain the status of your project like for example whether it achieved the
anticipated benefits.
Acknowledgements
It is mandatory that a candidate thanks whoever has helped him technically or otherwise,
during the project. Your supervisor and your client will obviously be pleased to be
acknowledged as they would have invested a quite a lot of time overseeing your progress.
Acknowledgements should be brief and to the point and should not exceed one page.
Contents
Contents identify all sections of the dissertation under the given preface, chapter and
appendix headings along with their page numbers. It is recommended that sections are
numbered up to three levels e.g., 5.2.1. Chapter 1 begins on page 1. Use roman numerals
for all previous pages excepting the title page. That is, the numbering should start with the
declaration page with page number ii. The overall structure of dissertation content should
show a clear progression of logical thought. Choose self-explanatory section and subsection
titles relevant to the topic under consideration.
19
List of Figures
All figures in the dissertation should be numbered and named using an appropriate
caption. Numbering is done using chapter number and a sequence number (e.g. Figure 3.2
for second figure in Chapter 3). Figures in the appendices are numbered using the
Appendix letter (e.g. Figure C.2 for second figure in Appendix C). List of figures consists
of figure number, captions and page numbers. List can be generated using features of a
word processing package. All figures used in the main chapters must be described in text
prior to its use and must be referred to using its figure number. For example, in Section
3.5 of this document Figure 3.1 is referred to in text in the paragraph before the figure.
List of Tables
All tables in the dissertation should be numbered and named using an appropriate caption.
Numbering is done using chapter number and a sequence number (e.g. Table 3.2 for
second table in Chapter 3). Tables in the appendices are numbered using the Appendix
letter (e.g. Table C.2 for second table in Appendix C). List of tables consists of table
number, captions and page numbers. List can be generated using features of a word
processing package. All tables used in the main chapters must be described in text prior to
its use and must be referred to using its table number. In section 5.1 of this document
Table 5.2 is referred to in text in the paragraph numbered as (18).
List of Acronyms
Provides the meanings of all abbreviations used in the dissertation in alphabetical order.
Refer page (ix) for an example.
5.2.2 Main chapters
Chapter 1 – Introduction
This is one of the most important components of the report. The motivation for the project
should be argued here. Then a brief introduction to the project should be provided
indicating its objectives and scope. Finally, a paragraph containing an outline of the
remaining chapters (starting with Chapter 2) is recommended.
20
Chapter 2 – Analysis
An analysis of the requirements should be provided in this chapter. For example, the
requirements of the system could be listed. A specification of the number of users, the
frequency of use, and the jobs of the users could be provided. Functional requirements
covering system functionality expected by the users and non-functional requirements
covering reliability, portability, and response and processing times should be addressed
with detailed justification. Description of the prerequisites that must apply for the system
to be used (called success factors) should be given.
In this chapter, information on the existing system could be provided through appropriate
structures like Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) if applicable. The logic inside processes in a
DFD could be given for example through structured English, decision tables, or decision
trees (whichever is appropriate). Data modelling (if appropriate) could be done through
ER diagrams. Functional Hierarchy Diagrams (could be drawn by listing the tasks that
each user would like to perform using your system) can also be used if appropriate. Use
case diagrams could also be used if applicable. Note: The above is just a guideline of the
different items that could be provided in this chapter of your dissertation. From that list,
you should pick only what is appropriate for your project. You should also be judicious
in picking the right amount of detail that your reader will appreciate and relegate detailed
diagrams to the appendix B.
You may also review existing software that are similar to your proposed system. Your
review must be comprehensive and up-to-date. It may be appropriate to incorporate
criticisms of these systems where needed (and to justify the criticisms). This review will
also help you identify the ideas from these software that are useful and can be applied to
your project and those that are not. Also note that everything used should be cited by
reference to the “References” section at the end of the dissertation.
Chapter 3 – Design
In this chapter you could consider different competing design strategies for your system.
The different strategies may involve the way of development (developing from scratch,
using open-source components, etc.,), the hardware environment (stand alone personal
21
computer, client-server environment, etc.,), choice of system software (Windows, Linux,
etc.,). You could compare how the project requirements are satisfied through each
alternative as well as the costs involved in each and select with justification a single
design strategy for implementation.
The design of your system should be given in this chapter. The structure of the system
should be clear to the reader after reading this chapter. There should be evidence of a
methodical approach to the design of the system. In this chapter, you may provide for
example data flow diagrams, decision tables, entity relationship diagrams, database table
structures, backup strategy design, design of any audit trails, security scheme design,
structure charts, class diagrams (for OO design), state diagrams (for OO design),
sequence diagrams (for OO design), etc., (whichever is appropriate for your project).
User interface design can also be discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 4 – Implementation
This chapter should describe the implementation of the system. For example, it should
identify and explain all major code and module structures. Also, the implementation
environment (hardware and software), any existing code that was reused by you,
development tools used, and any platform dependence must be discussed. When re-using
existing code, your contribution in the implementation must be closely indicated, and the
original authors/sources must be appropriately acknowledged. Appropriate technical
documentation may be included as appendices to the dissertation if they are expected to be
useful for the reader. Note that a list of selected code will appear in appendix and the code
used in this chapter should be presented for the purpose of explaining the implementation
aspects of selected important code. This code should be presented as a code segment that
is usually visible within the same page (i.e. should avoid spanning the code into multiple
pages).
Chapter 5 – Evaluation
This chapter should prove that proper testing of system was done. For example, a
comprehensive test plan that was used to verify and validate the system should be
provided. Evidence should be provided of using a wide range of test data. Evidence should
22
be produced to show that all aspects of the system have been tested and specification has
been met. Description of the effects of various kinds of errors and the required system
behaviour upon occurrence of an error should be included. You may include detailed
actual test results in the appendices of the dissertation.
The evaluation of your project by potential users may also be provided here. You may use
a questionnaire to obtain user feedback. Any documents related to client’s evaluation of
your system and also a client certification letter indicating the level of achievement of the
set objectives and usefulness of the system should be provided in the appendix.
Chapter 6 – Conclusion
This chapter will conclude the dissertation with a critical evaluation of the system and
suggestions for any future work.
The evaluation should include a critical discussion and assessment of results of project.
This chapter should discuss whether the project objectives were satisfied and if not, the
reasons for them. Lessons learnt during the course of the project should also be expanded
upon. It is important that any failures to achieve given objectives should be discussed and
analyzed. This does not mean that the candidate will be penalized. Problems beyond the
control of the candidate (e.g., client requests, obtaining necessary hardware/software) that
have affected the progress of the work may be mentioned here. However, avoid labouring
these points too strongly, as this may sound too much as if the candidate is seeking
excuses for poor results, and may leave the reader with a negative impression of the work.
Be positive and upbeat, even if the candidate feels that he has had a tough time.
This chapter should also identify any deficiencies in the final product and highlight how
improvements could be made, perhaps by another candidate next year.
References
It is very important to acknowledge any of the work of others that the candidate used or
adapted in the project, or that provided the essential background or context to the
dissertation. Please note that IEEE is the recommended referencing and citation style for
23
your dissertation. The details of these references are provided in References section of the
dissertation. You should include any web links too.
This is how the referencing should be done. In the main body of text, external work may
be referred for example in the following ways:
Example 1:
Systems analysis and design techniques are considered essential for developing
client/server and web-centric applications [6, 7].
Example 2:
Software testing [8] is an iterative process.
In the References section, each citation should be listed in the relevant format (Refer to an
IEEE referencing and citation style guide). For example, the reference section entries for
the above two examples would be;
[6] J.L. Whitten and L.D. Bentley, Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 7th ed. Tata
McGraw-Hill, 2007.
[7] UCSC, The Virtual Learning Environment for the BIT Students, 2006. [Online]
Available: http://vle.bit.lk , [Accessed: 30 Oct, 2013]
[8] I. Sommerville, Software Engineering, 8th ed. Addison-Wesley, 2006.
Please note that every item included in the references should be cited within the text of
the dissertation. More examples are available in the VLE.
5.2.3 Appendices
The appendices include further information that is not essential to be included in the
main text, but nevertheless could be useful to interested readers. The following appendices
could be included in the dissertation:
Appendix A – System Documentation
Technical documentation is included here. These details should guide candidates who
wish to continue or use the candidate’s project work and allow amendments and
24
extensions to the code. Provide program installation, compilation and execution details.
Documentation should point to locations where DLL’s and reusable code can be found, if
they are publicly available.
Appendix B – Design Documentation
Any design documentation that is not critical to be included in the main text (Chapter 3)
but could still be of interest to a reader can be added to the appendices. These could be for
example design diagrams (e.g., data flow, entity relationship, database schema and UML)
that have not been included in the main text.
Appendix C – User Documentation
May include a through and comprehensive documentation at a level, which is appropriate
to the identified users. User documentation may cover all aspects of the system, with
appropriate screen shots and explanations. Failing to include such documents means that
the candidate had failed to implement a critical component of his system and it could
result in not calling for project evaluation.
Appendix D – Management Reports
In addition to producing day to day transaction reports (e.g. a payroll system should
produce an individual pay sheet, coin analysis to make cash payments, EPF report etc.) a
system must produce summarised reports for the management (e.g. monthly, quarterly
payments made by organisation, employees, overtime hours by employee, etc.). These
reports will be included here. Usefulness of the system will be judged using these reports.
Failing to include such reports means that the candidate had failed to achieve his
objectives and it could result in not calling for project evaluation. Ensure that the reports
contain meaningful information which could be obtained through your system using
sufficient amount of data.
Appendix E – Test Results
The test plan should be thorough and comprehensive to verify and validate the system. It
has to be used to generate a wide range of test data. Test results should be included in a
25
tabulated form. Evidence should be produced to show that all aspects of the system have
been tested and specification has been met.
Appendix F – Code Listing
All code should be well structured, readable and should contain appropriate comments. If
there is a great deal of code, and including all of it would exceed the page limit, the
candidate should include only an overview of his code listing in the dissertation and refer
to the CD-ROM. Note that the implementation chapter will consists of code segments
used for explanation as part of the main text, while this appendix will consists of the entire
code modules used for the development of the system.
Appendix G – Client Certificate
Client certificate should indicate the suitability of the developed software for the
organisation and the level of fulfilment of the software with respect to client’s original
requirements. It should be printed on an official letterhead signed by at least a sectional
head.
5.3 Glossary and Index
This will consist of Glossary of terms and an extensive index. This will appear at the end
of the dissertation.
26
Chapter 6 – Assessment
The project work is assessed based on the progress reports submitted to the VLE and the
evaluation. The evaluation will include a viva and a code modification test described
below. Through all stages of the project the PEB should be satisfied that the candidate has
submitted his own work and the project objectives have been met as well as the outcome
has justified the time spent on the project. To pass the project, the candidate must satisfy
the PEB in all of the above aspects of the project in the same academic year.
6.1 Evaluation
After the dissertation is submitted, a project evaluation will be held at the UCSC. The
importance of this is the demonstration that the work belongs to the candidate except
where acknowledgements have been made and that the dissertation merits the award of the
degree. It also assesses the candidate’s ability to communicate his ideas and work.
Candidate should be able to convince the PEB that they have undertaken a project that is
acceptable at the degree level (e.g., 300 hours of work) and have implemented a
substantial software component by him. The evaluation of projects will be done only once
during an academic year. The evaluation consists of a Presentation, Demonstration, Viva,
Code modification and Dissertation feedback as described below.
6.1.1 Presentation
A presentation of the project should be done in about five minutes. Candidate should
bear in mind that the majority of the PEB will not be familiar with the project and thus the
presentation should indicate what the project is about, the motivation for the work, and the
scope of project. It should be clear, understandable and well structured. And the style and
content should be appropriate for an academic audience. Visual material should be of high
standard. Contingency arrangements should be made to ensure the availability of
presentation material.
27
6.1.2 Demonstration
Demonstration of the software should be done at the UCSC and should be limited to a
maximum of 20 minutes. Candidate should take necessary action to ensure that this part is
tested prior to the viva date using the same equipment/environment you intend to use at
the evaluation. Candidate is responsible to bring his own equipment and not more than 10
minutes will be given to set up the equipment. The candidate should confidently
demonstrate the operations of the system. The candidate should plan so that the
demonstration includes the main aspects of the system. The PEB will be judging the
quality of your project by what you demonstrate at the UCSC and not by the features that
your system supposedly contains but cannot be demonstrated at the UCSC for some
reason. Candidate should ensure that all aspects of the systems have been pre tested and
all such data should be brought for the demonstration. Typically for example, for database
based projects, each database table must have a minimum of 10-15 records. Note that you
may also be asked questions during the demonstration.
6.1.3 Viva
The candidate will be asked questions (approximately 10 minutes) based on the
presentation and demonstration. Candidate should provide confident and sufficient
responses to questions.
6.1.4 Code modification
The candidate will be required to explain any part of the system code and also perform
modifications such as changes to the database structures and reflecting them in the
program interfaces; reports etc. and demonstrate the changes. Such changes should be
demonstrated within a specified time period of 30 minutes duration. Note that the code
modification is a very important item in the grading process. Based on the performance of
the candidate, the PEB panel will assess your competency in coding and authenticity of
the demonstrated code. The candidate is subjected to further evaluations described below,
only if he passes this code modification component. If he failed this component, the
candidate will receive a FAIL grade for the project and may be reported for plagiarism.
28
When the project evaluation is done, your work will be evaluated by the PEB and
feedback given to you (later through the web site) on the result of your project. You will
be given feedback on your submitted dissertation also, to improve it for the final
dissertation submission.
6.1.5 Dissertation feedback
At the project dissertation feedback will be given for the originally submitted draft
dissertation. The items that we look for in the dissertation are given in Table 6.1. The total
mark obtained through the marking scheme (Table 6.2) will be adjusted (reduced) based
on the quality of the candidate’s dissertation.
Preface
Cover page
Title
Declaration
Abstract
Acknowledgement
Table of content
Lists of Figures, List of Tables
List of Acronyms (if applicable)
Introduction
Motivation
Objectives and scope
Analysis
Description of current system using a diagram
Outline of existing similar solutions with references
Requirements
Relevant diagrams for the selected methodology
Design
Alternate solutions evaluation
Selected solution description and justification
Relevant design diagrams
User interface design
Implementation
Implementation environment (hardware/software)
Code and module structure description,
Acknowledgement of any reused existing code
Evaluation
Test plan
Test results
User evaluation
Conclusion
Critical assessment of project
Future work
29
References
Format references (Use IEEE referencing)
All references cited in text (Use IEEE in-text citations style)
Appendices
System documentation
Design documentation
User documentation
Management Reports
Test Results
Code listing
Client Certificate
General
Spelling
Grammar
Writing
All figures and all tables referenced in text
Page numbering
Adherence to page limit (not more than 110)
Table 6.1: Dissertation check list

6.2 Marking Scheme
The marking scheme for the project is as shown in Table 6.2.
Description Marks (%)
Final project evaluation 90
Progress report submission 05
Interim report submission 05
Table 6.2: Project marking scheme
6.2.1 Evaluation
The items that will be checked at the evaluation are given in Table 6.3.
Description
Scope (e.g., work involved, usefulness)
Design (entire system)
User interface (e.g., look, error messages, validation)
Evidence of testing
Code readability (e.g., comments, indentation)
Quality of presentation
Response to questions
Explaining any part of the system code
Making changes to the system
Table 6.3: Project evaluation check list
30
6.2.2 Progress reports
The candidate should submit progress reports to the VLE according to the schedule
given in Table 4.1. The progress report submissions will be rewarded with a maximum of
5% marks.
6.2.3 Interim Report
The candidate should submit an interim report to VLE by mid April of the relevant
academic year. A maximum of 5% marks will be given to interim report submissions.
(Exact date for submission is given in the Table 4.1).
6.3 Grade
A project grade (Pass: A+,A,A-,B+,B,B-,C+,C; Fail: C-,D, E) will be given only to those
who submit the dissertation and appear for the evaluation. Submissions of other registered
candidates will not be marked and a grade NC would be given for them. Such a grade will
not be counted as an attempt.
31
Chapter 7 – Pitfalls
Some of the most useful things to know about individual projects are the common pitfalls.
Why do some projects go wrong? Here are some of the common causes of failure [9]:
 Choosing/Starting the project too late. Submit your project proposal on time and
start the project as soon as you can. The longer you leave it the harder it is to get
motivated, especially when all your friends seem to be flying ahead. You should
aim to submit all project components as listed under the submission schedule.
 Failing to meet your supervisor regularly. If you arrange a meeting with your
supervisor, turn up at the agreed time. You gain no sympathy from anyone if you
lose contact with your supervisor and produce a poor project as a result. Your
supervisor will be happy to help you but they can do nothing if they are unaware
that you are having trouble.
 Failing to plan a fall-back position if the planned work is not completed on time.
Try to plan your project in stages so that if things go wrong in a later stage you
have an alternative plan to fall back on.
 Trying to satisfy an external customer at the expense of your grades. Do not let any
outside interests interfere with your work. The guidance for your project should
come from your supervisor, not your prospective employer or client. While it is
important to satisfy the client you should remember that the project is evaluated to
meet the degree requirements. Sometimes client’s expectations may be far beyond
or far below a degree level project.
 Over/Under Ambition. Try to be realistic about what you can achieve in the time
available. A good project requires a lot of input from you and should prove to be
technically challenging throughout. At the same time, however, it is better to do a
small job well than failing to do a complex job at all. Your supervisor will advise
you on his expectations of the project and this will help you to set your sights
accordingly.
32
References
[1] G.N. Wikramanayake and G.I. Gamage. (2005). IT6102 Third (Final) Year Project
Guidelines, University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka. [Online].
Available: http://www.bit.lk/images/stories/information/2004/IT6102guide.pdf
[Accessed: Aug 20, 2006].
[2] A. Caldera, et al. (2009). IT6103 Third (Final) Year Project Guidelines, University
of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka. [Online]. Available:
http://www.bit.lk/IT6103/IT6103_Guidelines.pdf [Accessed: Nov 15, 2009].
[3] A. Caldera, et al. (2012). IT6104 Third (Final) Year Project Guidelines, University
of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka. [Online]. Available:
http://bit.cmb.ac.lk/sites/default/files/bit_docs/BIT-%20IT6104-
Project%20Guidelines%202012.pdf [Accessed: Nov 10, 2013].
[4] J.A. Hoffer, J.F.George and J.S.Valacich, Modern System Analysis and Design, 3
rd
ed. Pearson Education, 2002.
[5] UCSC, BIT (Bachelor of Information Technology), University of Colombo, Sri
Lanka, 2009. Internet: http://www.bit.lk [Accessed: 10 Nov, 2013].
[6] J.L. Whitten and L.D. Bentley, Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 7th ed.
Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.
[7] UCSC, The Virtual Learning Environment for the BIT Students, 2006. [Online]
Available: http://vle.bit.lk [Accessed: 30 Oct, 2013]
[8] I. Sommerville, Software Engineering, 8th ed. Addison-Wesley, 2006.
[9] Imperial College, Guide to Individual Projects, Imperial College, London, 2009.
[Online]. Available:
http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/pls/portallive/docs/1/35073696.pdf [Accessed: 20 Nov
2009].
33
Appendix A – Examples of Project Topics
A comprehensive list of past completed project titles are available in the BIT web site [5].
(i) Student Management System for P&E Institute of Computer Studies
(ii) Hotel Management System for Hotel Janaki.
(iii) Document Management System for Sampath Bank Ltd
(iv) Container Freight Station Management system with On-line inquiry facilities for Sri
Lanka Ports Authority, Container Freight Station 1
(v) Inventory & Stock Management System for Sri Lanka Survey Department
(vi) Stock Maintenance, Distribution and Control System for McLarens International
Ltd.
(vii) Payroll System for New Order International
(viii) Online Course Evaluation System for the “Theducation ” Learning Management
System (VLE)
(ix) Online Human Resource Management System for D H Wijewardena Associates
(x) Web Based Vehicle Yard Planning Computer System for Sri Lanka Ports Authority
(xi) Automated Income & Expenditure Classification System for Institute of
Technology, University of Moratuwa
(xii) Office Automation System for Advanced Technical Institute – Galle
34
Appendix B – Project Proposal
Full project proposal is available online on VLE. Here we only identify some of the
content in the project proposal.
Project Proposal
Academic Year 2014/2015
Candidate Details
Index No: …………………………………….
Name of candidate: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Contact telephone numbers: ………………………………………………………………………………………
Email: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Title of Project:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Repeat Student Only
Number of Attempts: ……………………………………………………………………
Earlier Project Title:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
35
Appendix C- Supervisor/Advisor Agreement Form
Obtain the supervisor/advisor agreement form from the VLE. Here we only identify some
of the content in the supervisor/advisor agreement form.
Supervisor/Advisor Agreement Form
Academic Year 2014/2015
I understand that the Final Individual Project is a key component of the Bachelor of Information
Technology degree programme of the University of Colombo, and have read the guidelines
concerning it given to me by the following student whom I hereby agree to supervise.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
Cognizant of the seriousness of this assignment, I hereby agree to adhere to the following.
• To be available for meeting the student on a regular basis (generally fortnightly)
• To help the student to scope the project to meet the requirements set out in the guidelines
• To assist the student in resolving any problems encountered in conducting the project
• To monitor the progress of the project and intervene in case of slippage in the time line
• To give constructive feedback to enrich the project experience of the student
• To help the student in the writing up of the dissertation and planning the final evaluation
I understand that the project grade of the student I supervised/advised will be published by the
UCSC, and the student’s performance will finally be judged by the IT industry.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
Work Experience:
(Tick appropriate) 3 years experience in Software Development
3 years experience in supervising/advising projects at tertiary level
1 year experience as team leader or project manager
5 years experience in implementing IT projects
Other – Specify: …………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
I agree to adhere above conditions.
Signature: ……………………………… Date: ……………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
36
Appendix D- Template for the cover page
Prepare the cover page of your dissertation as provided in the following page of this
project guideline.
Title of the dissertation
Candidate’s name
BIT registration number
Index number
Name(s) of the supervisor(s)
2014 / 2015
This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of the
Degree of Bachelor of Information Technology (external) of the
University of Colombo School of Computing

Convert Microsoft Access Tables, Forms, and Reports HND Edexcel ICT

Create Forms and Reports using Microsoft Access

Discover forms and reports based on access tables and expand on your knowledge obtained from attending the Introduction to Microsoft Access class.

During this three-hour class, you will explore the wizard to help create forms and reports.  In addition, you will work with form and report properties.

To get the most from this class, we recommend that you take the Introduction to Microsoft Access and Working with Queries in Microsoft Access classes before attending this class. This class is offered at least once a quarter.

ITClassSL colombo HND Edexcel ICT samples code free download assignments and projects ms access forms and reports sample-ms-access-forms

You’ll Benefit By Learning To:

  • Create and modify a form in layout and design view
  • Create and modify a report using the wizard and in design view
  • Add and remove fields from reports and forms

Web Designing

Source: Web Designing

BIT UCSC Final Year Project Class Help Guide and Support in php mySQL – Sri Lanka

BIT UCSC Final Year Project Class Help Guide and Support in php mySQL – Sri Lanka.

BIT UCSC Final Year Project Class Help Guide and Support in php mySQL – Sri Lanka

http://localedxcelcambridgeictcomputerclass.blogspot.com/

BIT UCSC Final year project guide help support php

http://localedxcelcambridgeictcomputerclass.blogspot.com/

Blog Archive

Blog http://localedxcelcambridgeictcomputerclass.blogspot.com

 Join Facebook Fan page https://www.facebook.com/pages/Itsoftware-Classin-Srilanka/380768322055448
Join Linkedin http://www.linkedin.com/pub/it-class-sri-lanaka/7b/948/a26
Join Yahoo Group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/itclasssl/info
Google plus https://plus.google.com/+itclassFaazSoftwareProjectsAssignmentsSriLanka
https://plus.google.com/+LocaledxcelcambridgeictcomputerclassBlogspot/posts
http://itcomputerclasslk.deviantart.com/
WordPress https://computerclassinsrilanka.wordpress.com/author/itclasssl/
Website http://itcomputertuitionclass.site88.net/
Home visits Individual / Group / Online classes in English / Sinhala / Tamil. Sample Projects/Assignments Exam Papers, Tutorials, Notes and Answers will we provided.
Call+94 777 33 7279 | eMail itclasssl@gmail.com | Skype ITClassSL

 

http://learnphpdoprojectsedexcelict.bravesites.com/

http://itclasssl.wix.com/icttraining#

http://wikimapia.org/29727672/ICT-Consulting-Software-Development-Web-Design-and-Corporate-Student-Training

http://itconsultingandcompterclasses.weebly.com/

http://about.me/itclass.srilanka.5

http://www.mytutor.lk/view-tutor-profile.php?recordID=1314

https://www.elance.com/s/itclasssl/

 http://www.pinterest.com/isrilanka/software-consultancy-and-development-services/

PayPal Express Checkout with PHP

PayPal Express Checkout with PHP

Paypal is the most popular and convenient way to get paid. If you are selling some products in your website, you should definitely use Paypal payment gateway, why? because it’s free and there are over 350 million Paypal users all over the world who would happily purchase your products.

In this tutorial let us find-out how we can use Paypal Express Checkout in websites to sell some products instantly.

To test your PayPal store in a local server, you need to signup for PayPal Developer account and use their sandbox. See creating PayPal Sandbox account. To sell your products in real world, you need to signup for real Paypal account and obtain sellers information needed for the configuration file.

As you can see we have four PHP files in this tutorial index.php, config.php, process.php and paypal.class.php, but if you observe mainly two files index.php and process.php, you should be pretty clear how everything works.

Configuration

config.php PHP file is used to store seller’s Paypal API information. Use your sandbox or live PayPal API details to replace variables in config.php file.

 

Product Page

index.php is initial page where your buyers get to see your products, it doesn’t matter how you are planning to present your products, it could be complex ajax driven page, single product or just list of few products, you just need to list your products similar to example below.

Each product item contains a form, and each form contains hidden input variables item name, item number, item quantity and price. A buyer is able to see product details and select quantity before buying the product. When buyer decides to buy, the selected product data gets posted to process.php.

Please Note : Including price in hidden field is bad idea as shown in code below, as the value can be easily replaced using some developer tool. It is advisable in practical world, you only include product number as hidden field in product page and fetch its actual price from database in next process page, so that people can’t manipulate the the price.

 

Test Products

Product 1

(product description)

Quantity :123

PHP Class

The downloadbale sample files also include a PHP class called paypal.class.php to interact with PayPal. paypal.class.php is nothing but collection of functions, PPHttpPost() PHP function is used to carry out API operations in progress.php file, such as sending HTTP POST Request or getting response from the server. You can add your own additional functions (if needed) in this class file and execute like this $paypal->functionname().

Processing PayPal Payment

The most important segment of our PayPal Express Checkout system is the process.php file. Here the buyer’s product data is received and processed further for the payment.

We will execute mainly three Paypal methods here SetExpressCheckout, DoExpressCheckout & GetExpressCheckoutDetails. But before we proceed further, we need to collect product details such as product id, its name and price for process page.

As explained earlier, you should only fetch product price from database rather than hidden input fields for security reasons, once we have the price, we can calculate and include tax details, shipping cost and discounts, which we need to set as parameters for SetExpressCheckout and DoExpressCheckout.

There are other various parameters you can pass to SetExpressCheckout and DoExpressCheckout to control the outcome. I advice you to read official PayPal documentation to know more about these parameters.

SetExpressCheckOut

When buyer sends product details by clicking buy button, process.php needs to obtain PayPal token with SetExpressCheckOut method using Seller’s PayPal API credentials.

Once we successfully receive PayPal token, we need to set some session variable (itemprice, totalamount, itemName, itemNo, itemQTY) for later use. And then we redirect buyer to PayPal order summary page, where buyer pays in secure PayPal environment, but remember PayPal doesn’t transfer money yet.

DoExpressCheckoutPayment

After payment, buyer is redirected back to process.php page with Paypal token and PayerID values. We again need to send these values back to PayPal using DoExpressCheckoutPayment method, where PayPal verifies these values, only then the money is transferred to Seller’s account.

GetExpressCheckoutDetails

Obtains information about a specific order using SetExpressCheckOut token, on successful payment you might want to save buyer details such as address, payment Information etc. in database, please see Mysqli basic usage.

Each comment line in PHP code below explains how process.php deals with data received from buyer and PayPal.

<?php session_start(); include_once(“config.php”); include_once(“paypal.class.php”); $paypalmode = ($PayPalMode==’sandbox’) ? ‘.sandbox’ : ”; if($_POST) //Post Data received from product list page. { //Mainly we need 4 variables from product page Item Name, Item Price, Item Number and Item Quantity. //Please Note : People can manipulate hidden field amounts in form, //In practical world you must fetch actual price from database using item id. Eg: //$ItemPrice = $mysqli->query(“SELECT item_price FROM products WHERE id = Product_Number”);

$ItemName = $_POST[“itemname”]; //Item Name
$ItemPrice = $_POST[“itemprice”]; //Item Price
$ItemNumber = $_POST[“itemnumber”]; //Item Number
$ItemDesc = $_POST[“itemdesc”]; //Item description
$ItemQty = $_POST[“itemQty”]; // Item Quantity
$ItemTotalPrice = ($ItemPrice*$ItemQty); //(Item Price x Quantity = Total) Get total amount of product;

//Other important variables like tax, shipping cost
$TotalTaxAmount = 2.58; //Sum of tax for all items in this order.
$HandalingCost = 2.00; //Handling cost for this order.
$InsuranceCost = 1.00; //shipping insurance cost for this order.
$ShippinDiscount = -3.00; //Shipping discount for this order. Specify this as negative number.
$ShippinCost = 3.00; //Although you may change the value later, try to pass in a shipping amount that is reasonably accurate.

//Grand total including all tax, insurance, shipping cost and discount
$GrandTotal = ($ItemTotalPrice + $TotalTaxAmount + $HandalingCost + $InsuranceCost + $ShippinCost + $ShippinDiscount);

//Parameters for SetExpressCheckout, which will be sent to PayPal
$padata = ‘&METHOD=SetExpressCheckout’.
‘&RETURNURL=’.urlencode($PayPalReturnURL ).
‘&CANCELURL=’.urlencode($PayPalCancelURL).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_PAYMENTACTION=’.urlencode(“SALE”).

‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME0=’.urlencode($ItemName).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NUMBER0=’.urlencode($ItemNumber).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_DESC0=’.urlencode($ItemDesc).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_AMT0=’.urlencode($ItemPrice).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_QTY0=’. urlencode($ItemQty).

/*
//Additional products (L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME0 becomes L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME1 and so on)
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME1=’.urlencode($ItemName2).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NUMBER1=’.urlencode($ItemNumber2).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_DESC1=’.urlencode($ItemDesc2).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_AMT1=’.urlencode($ItemPrice2).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_QTY1=’. urlencode($ItemQty2).
*/

/*
//Override the buyer’s shipping address stored on PayPal, The buyer cannot edit the overridden address.
‘&ADDROVERRIDE=1’.
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPTONAME=J Smith’.
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPTOSTREET=1 Main St’.
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPTOCITY=San Jose’.
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPTOSTATE=CA’.
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPTOCOUNTRYCODE=US’.
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPTOZIP=95131’.
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPTOPHONENUM=408-967-4444’.
*/

‘&NOSHIPPING=0’. //set 1 to hide buyer’s shipping address, in-case products that does not require shipping

‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_ITEMAMT=’.urlencode($ItemTotalPrice).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_TAXAMT=’.urlencode($TotalTaxAmount).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPPINGAMT=’.urlencode($ShippinCost).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_HANDLINGAMT=’.urlencode($HandalingCost).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPDISCAMT=’.urlencode($ShippinDiscount).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_INSURANCEAMT=’.urlencode($InsuranceCost).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_AMT=’.urlencode($GrandTotal).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_CURRENCYCODE=’.urlencode($PayPalCurrencyCode).
‘&LOCALECODE=GB’. //PayPal pages to match the language on your website.
‘&LOGOIMG=http://www.sanwebe.com/wp-content/themes/sanwebe/img/logo.png’. //site logo
‘&CARTBORDERCOLOR=FFFFFF’. //border color of cart
‘&ALLOWNOTE=1’;

############# set session variable we need later for “DoExpressCheckoutPayment” #######
$_SESSION[‘ItemName’] = $ItemName; //Item Name
$_SESSION[‘ItemPrice’] = $ItemPrice; //Item Price
$_SESSION[‘ItemNumber’] = $ItemNumber; //Item Number
$_SESSION[‘ItemDesc’] = $ItemDesc; //Item description
$_SESSION[‘ItemQty’] = $ItemQty; // Item Quantity
$_SESSION[‘ItemTotalPrice’] = $ItemTotalPrice; //total amount of product;
$_SESSION[‘TotalTaxAmount’] = $TotalTaxAmount; //Sum of tax for all items in this order.
$_SESSION[‘HandalingCost’] = $HandalingCost; //Handling cost for this order.
$_SESSION[‘InsuranceCost’] = $InsuranceCost; //shipping insurance cost for this order.
$_SESSION[‘ShippinDiscount’] = $ShippinDiscount; //Shipping discount for this order. Specify this as negative number.
$_SESSION[‘ShippinCost’] = $ShippinCost; //Although you may change the value later, try to pass in a shipping amount that is reasonably accurate.
$_SESSION[‘GrandTotal’] = $GrandTotal;

//We need to execute the “SetExpressCheckOut” method to obtain paypal token
$paypal= new MyPayPal();
$httpParsedResponseAr = $paypal->PPHttpPost(‘SetExpressCheckout’, $padata, $PayPalApiUsername, $PayPalApiPassword, $PayPalApiSignature, $PayPalMode);

//Respond according to message we receive from Paypal
if(“SUCCESS” == strtoupper($httpParsedResponseAr[“ACK”]) || “SUCCESSWITHWARNING” == strtoupper($httpParsedResponseAr[“ACK”]))
{

//Redirect user to PayPal store with Token received.
$paypalurl =’https://www&#8217;.$paypalmode.’.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_express-checkout&token=’.$httpParsedResponseAr[“TOKEN”].”;
header(‘Location: ‘.$paypalurl);

}else{
//Show error message
echo ‘

Error : ‘.urldecode($httpParsedResponseAr[“L_LONGMESSAGE0”]).’

‘;
echo ‘

';
             print_r($httpParsedResponseAr);
             echo '

‘;
}

}

//Paypal redirects back to this page using ReturnURL, We should receive TOKEN and Payer ID
if(isset($_GET[“token”]) && isset($_GET[“PayerID”]))
{
//we will be using these two variables to execute the “DoExpressCheckoutPayment”
//Note: we haven’t received any payment yet.

$token = $_GET[“token”];
$payer_id = $_GET[“PayerID”];

//get session variables
$ItemName = $_SESSION[‘ItemName’]; //Item Name
$ItemPrice = $_SESSION[‘ItemPrice’] ; //Item Price
$ItemNumber = $_SESSION[‘ItemNumber’]; //Item Number
$ItemDesc = $_SESSION[‘ItemDesc’]; //Item Number
$ItemQty = $_SESSION[‘ItemQty’]; // Item Quantity
$ItemTotalPrice = $_SESSION[‘ItemTotalPrice’]; //total amount of product;
$TotalTaxAmount = $_SESSION[‘TotalTaxAmount’] ; //Sum of tax for all items in this order.
$HandalingCost = $_SESSION[‘HandalingCost’]; //Handling cost for this order.
$InsuranceCost = $_SESSION[‘InsuranceCost’]; //shipping insurance cost for this order.
$ShippinDiscount = $_SESSION[‘ShippinDiscount’]; //Shipping discount for this order. Specify this as negative number.
$ShippinCost = $_SESSION[‘ShippinCost’]; //Although you may change the value later, try to pass in a shipping amount that is reasonably accurate.
$GrandTotal = $_SESSION[‘GrandTotal’];

$padata = ‘&TOKEN=’.urlencode($token).
‘&PAYERID=’.urlencode($payer_id).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_PAYMENTACTION=’.urlencode(“SALE”).

//set item info here, otherwise we won’t see product details later
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME0=’.urlencode($ItemName).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NUMBER0=’.urlencode($ItemNumber).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_DESC0=’.urlencode($ItemDesc).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_AMT0=’.urlencode($ItemPrice).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_QTY0=’. urlencode($ItemQty).

/*
//Additional products (L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME0 becomes L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME1 and so on)
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NAME1=’.urlencode($ItemName2).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_NUMBER1=’.urlencode($ItemNumber2).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_DESC1=Description text’.
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_AMT1=’.urlencode($ItemPrice2).
‘&L_PAYMENTREQUEST_0_QTY1=’. urlencode($ItemQty2).
*/

‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_ITEMAMT=’.urlencode($ItemTotalPrice).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_TAXAMT=’.urlencode($TotalTaxAmount).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPPINGAMT=’.urlencode($ShippinCost).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_HANDLINGAMT=’.urlencode($HandalingCost).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_SHIPDISCAMT=’.urlencode($ShippinDiscount).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_INSURANCEAMT=’.urlencode($InsuranceCost).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_AMT=’.urlencode($GrandTotal).
‘&PAYMENTREQUEST_0_CURRENCYCODE=’.urlencode($PayPalCurrencyCode);

//We need to execute the “DoExpressCheckoutPayment” at this point to Receive payment from user.
$paypal= new MyPayPal();
$httpParsedResponseAr = $paypal->PPHttpPost(‘DoExpressCheckoutPayment’, $padata, $PayPalApiUsername, $PayPalApiPassword, $PayPalApiSignature, $PayPalMode);

//Check if everything went ok..
if(“SUCCESS” == strtoupper($httpParsedResponseAr[“ACK”]) || “SUCCESSWITHWARNING” == strtoupper($httpParsedResponseAr[“ACK”]))
{

echo ‘

Success

‘;
echo ‘Your Transaction ID : ‘.urldecode($httpParsedResponseAr[“PAYMENTINFO_0_TRANSACTIONID”]);

/*
//Sometimes Payment are kept pending even when transaction is complete.
//hence we need to notify user about it and ask him manually approve the transiction
*/

if(‘Completed’ == $httpParsedResponseAr[“PAYMENTINFO_0_PAYMENTSTATUS”])
{
echo ‘

Payment Received! Your product will be sent to you very soon!

‘;
}
elseif(‘Pending’ == $httpParsedResponseAr[“PAYMENTINFO_0_PAYMENTSTATUS”])
{
echo ‘

Transaction Complete, but payment is still pending! ‘.
‘You need to manually authorize this payment in your Paypal Account

‘;
}

// we can retrive transection details using either GetTransactionDetails or GetExpressCheckoutDetails
// GetTransactionDetails requires a Transaction ID, and GetExpressCheckoutDetails requires Token returned by SetExpressCheckOut
$padata = ‘&TOKEN=’.urlencode($token);
$paypal= new MyPayPal();
$httpParsedResponseAr = $paypal->PPHttpPost(‘GetExpressCheckoutDetails’, $padata, $PayPalApiUsername, $PayPalApiPassword, $PayPalApiSignature, $PayPalMode);

if(“SUCCESS” == strtoupper($httpParsedResponseAr[“ACK”]) || “SUCCESSWITHWARNING” == strtoupper($httpParsedResponseAr[“ACK”]))
{

echo ‘
Stuff to store in database :

';
                     /*
                     #### SAVE BUYER INFORMATION IN DATABASE ###
                     //see (http://www.sanwebe.com/2013/03/basic-php-mysqli-usage) for mysqli usage
                     
                    $buyerName = $httpParsedResponseAr["FIRSTNAME"].' '.$httpParsedResponseAr["LASTNAME"];
                     $buyerEmail = $httpParsedResponseAr["EMAIL"];
                     
                    //Open a new connection to the MySQL server
                     $mysqli = new mysqli('host','username','password','database_name');
                     
                    //Output any connection error
                     if ($mysqli->connect_error) {
                         die('Error : ('. $mysqli->connect_errno .') '. $mysqli->connect_error);
                     }       
                    
                    $insert_row = $mysqli->query("INSERT INTO BuyerTable 
                    (BuyerName,BuyerEmail,TransactionID,ItemName,ItemNumber, ItemAmount,ItemQTY)
                     VALUES ('$buyerName','$buyerEmail','$transactionID','$ItemName',$ItemNumber, $ItemTotalPrice,$ItemQTY)");
                     
                    if($insert_row){
                         print 'Success! ID of last inserted record is : ' .$mysqli->insert_id .'
'; 
                    }else{
                         die('Error : ('. $mysqli->errno .') '. $mysqli->error);
                     }
                     
                    */
                     
                    echo '
';
                     print_r($httpParsedResponseAr);
                     echo '

‘;
} else {
echo ‘

GetTransactionDetails failed:‘.urldecode($httpParsedResponseAr[“L_LONGMESSAGE0”]).’

‘;
echo ‘

';
                     print_r($httpParsedResponseAr);
                     echo '

‘;

}

}else{
echo ‘

Error : ‘.urldecode($httpParsedResponseAr[“L_LONGMESSAGE0”]).’

‘;
echo ‘

';
             print_r($httpParsedResponseAr);
             echo '

‘;
}
}
?>

Conclusion

I hope this tutorial will help you sell your products easily using PayPal. If you are facing issue of Paypal holding fund for 21 days, please read their policy here, and if you sell huge amount of products everyday, you might want to automate things by setting up PayPal IPN listener script. Good luck!

You might also be interested in reading Creating Simple Shopping Cart with PHP. and Sending Multiple Items to PayPal using Shopping cart.

Download Demo

Source – http://www.sanwebe.com/2012/07/paypal-expresscheckout-with-php

Local Edxcel Cambridge ICT Computer Class Assignements Projects

Local Edxcel Cambridge ICT Computer Class Assignements Projects

Home visits Individual / Group / Online classes in English / Sinhala / Tamil. Sample Projects/Assignments Exam Papers, Tutorials, Notes and Answers will we provided. Call +94 777 33 7279 | eMail itclasssl@gmail.com | Skype ITClassSL

ICT GCE A/L ICTGCE A/L GIT GCE O/L ICT London Edxcel GCE London Edxcel GCSE London Edxcel IGCSE Cambridge GCE Kids Computing Adult Computing BIT UCSC BCS ICDL Computer Programming Database Management Operation Systems Web Designing Desktop Application DevelopmentComputer Projects / Assignments HND in Computing

http://localedxcelcambridgeictcomputerclass.blogspot.com/

Microsoft Visual basic 6.0 programming guide

What is Visual Basic?

It’s a computer programming system developed and owned by Microsoft. Visual Basic was originally created to make it easier to write programs for the Windows computer operating system. The basis of Visual Basic is an earlier programming language called BASIC that was invented by Dartmouth College professors John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. Visual Basic is often referred to using just the initials, VB. Visual Basic is easily the most widely used computer programming system in the history of software.

Is Visual Basic just a programming language or is it more than that?

It’s more. Visual Basic was one of the first systems that made it practical to write programs for the Windows operating system. This was possible because VB included software tools to automatically create the detailed programming required by Windows. These software tools not only create Windows programs, they also take full advantage of the graphical way that Windows works by letting programmers “draw” their systems with a mouse on the computer. This is why it’s called “Visual” Basic.

Visual Basic also provides a unique and complete software architecture. “Architecture” is the way computer programs, such as Windows and VB programs, work together. One of the major reasons why Visual Basic has been so successful is that it includes everything that is necessary to write programs for Windows.

Is there more than one version of Visual Basic?

Yes. Since 1991 when it was first introduced by Microsoft, there have been nine versions of Visual Basic up to VB.NET 2005, the current version. The first six versions were all called Visual Basic. In 2002, Microsoft introduced Visual Basic .NET 1.0, a completely redesigned and rewritten version that was a key part of a much larger computer architecture. The first six versions were all “backward compatible”. That means that later versions of VB could handle programs written with an earlier version. Because the .NET architecture was such a radical change, earlier versions of Visual Basic have to be rewritten before they can be used with .NET. Many programmers still prefer Visual Basic 6.0 and a few use even earlier versions.

Will Microsoft stop supporting Visual Basic 6 and earlier versions?

This depends on what you mean by “support” but many programmers would say they already have. The next version of the Windows operating system, Windows Vista, will still run Visual Basic 6 programs and future versions of Windows might run them too. On the other hand, Microsoft now charges big fees for any help for VB 6 software problems and soon they won’t provide it at all. Microsoft doesn’t sell VB 6 anymore so it’s difficult to find. It’s clear that Microsoft is doing everything they can to discourage the continued use of Visual Basic 6 and encourage the adoption of Visual Basic .NET. Many programmers believe that Microsoft was wrong to abandon Visual Basic 6 because their customers have put so much investment into it over more than ten years. As a result, Microsoft has earned a lot of ill will from some VB 6 programmers and some have moved to other languages rather than move to VB.NET. This might be a mistake. See the next item.

Is Visual Basic .NET really an improvement?

Absolutely yes! All of .NET is truly revolutionary and gives programmers a much more capable, efficient and flexible way to write computer software. Visual Basic .NET is a key part of this revolution.

At the same time, Visual Basic .NET is clearly more difficult to learn and use. The vastly improved capability does come at a fairly high cost of technical complexity. Microsoft helps to make up for this increased technical difficulty by providing even more software tools in .NET to help programmers. Most programmers agree that VB.NET is such a huge leap forward that it’s worth it.

Isn’t Visual Basic only for lower skilled programmers and simple systems?

This was something that programmers using programming languages like C, C++, and Java used to say before Visual Basic .NET. Back then, there was some truth to the charge, although on the other side of the argument was the fact that excellent programs could be written faster and cheaper with Visual Basic than with any of those languages.

VB.NET is the equal of any programming technology anywhere. In fact, the resulting program using the .NET version of the C programming language, called C#.NET, is virtually identical with the same program written in VB.NET. The only real difference today is programmer preference.